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pdf Major Subbasins Popular

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Major Subbasins.pdf

The Nile River flows through eleven countries (Burundi, DRCongo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan,Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda). The Nile basin comprises two broad sub-systems, these are the Eastern Nile sub-system and the Equatorial Nile sub-system. The basin was delineated into ten sub-basins (Main Nile, Atbara, Blue Nile, White Nile, Baro-Akobo-Sobat, Bahr El Jebel, Bahr El Ghazal, Lake Albert, Victoria Nile, Lake Victoria). These sub-basins featured five broad physiographic regions with diverse topography, drainage patterns and geomorphology.
These physiographic regions include (1) highlands – plateaus and mountains; (2) open water surfaces (lakes – both natural and man-made); (3) wetlands and swamps; (4) flat lands; and (5) deserts. Each physiographic region has a more or less uniquecombination of surface, slope, soils, topography and vegetation.
The first two physiographic regions mainly in the upper subbasin, and the later three regions covers mostly the mid and lower sub- basins.The Nile River is the longest river in the world at 6,695 km, flowing northward through the tropics and the highlands of eastern Africa and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The basin covers about one-tenth of the area of the continent, drains a total land area of 3,176,541 km2. Beside its length, the Nile River basin contains other unique features among the world large river basins, e.g. the Sudd wetland, Lake Victoria; 17 wetlands sites registered by Ramsar and diverse species of
flora and fauna.

pdf Protected areas in the Nile Basin Region Popular

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Protected areas in the Nile Basin Region.pdf

This map shows protected areas with in the Nile Basin region. A protected area is defined as a geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. Protected areas can take on many different forms, such as national parks, wilderness areas, community conserved areas, nature reserves and privately owned reserves.

The Serengeti and Masai Mara national parks feature the world famous annual migration of wildebeest, zebra and buffalo.The Sudd in South Sudan features equally impressive mass migrations of large  mammals. Other Transboundary conservation areas of considerable significance are the three connected national parks of the Virunga Mountain chain (Virunga National Park, Karisimbi National Park and Bwindi National Park), home to the world’s only remaining population of mountain gorilla.

The Boma National Park, sometimes called - the Boma Jonglei National Park, is home to a variety of animals: elephants, giraffe and buffalo. It has numerous types of antelopes like: white-eared kob, common eland, lesser kudu, Bohor reedbuck, gazelles, tiang, Lelwel hartebeest, Beisa oryx and roan. And an impressive diversity and variety of birds; most of which are migratory. Gambela National Park is located on the Akobo river system, it hosts several wildlife not found elsewhere in Ethiopia. Originally the park was created for protection of extensive swamp habitat and wildlife species.

pdf Water Use Infrastrcture in the Nile Basin Popular

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Water Use Infrastrcture in the Nile Basin.pdf

Water use is simply the amount of water used by a country or other lower entity such as a household.
Some of the varied uses in the Nile basin riparian states include hydro-electricity generation,
Municipal and Industrial water supply, agriculture, fishing, recreation, transport, tourism and
waste disposal.

Agriculture is a major livelihood strategy in the Nile Basin, sustaining tens of millions of people.
It provides occupations for more than 75% of the total labour force and contributes to onethird
of the GDP in the basin. An estimated 5.4 million hectares of land is under irrigation basin-wide, where over 97% of this
area is in Egypt and Sudan. The actual area cultivated on average is approximately 6.4 million
hectares. The total estimated annual irrigation water demand for irrigation is approximately 85BCM; the actual basin-wide withdrawal
of water from the Nile for irrigation is estimated as 82.2BCM.
The topography of the Nile provides opportunities for power generation, especially Ethiopia. Hydropower is a major water user in the Nile,
relying on water passing through turbines to generate electricity. Most power plants within the Nile are run of the river.

pdf Wetlands and Ramsar Sites in the Nile Basin Popular

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Wetlands and Ramsar Sites in the Nile Basin.pdf

Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that play an important role in maintaining environmental
quality, sustaining livelihoods and supporting biodiversity. The wide range of
animal and plant species wetlands support provide ecosystem that services in the form
of fisheries, fuel-wood, timber, medicines, and the local and global biodiversity,
providing high ecological, cultural and economic value through recreation and
tourism. Wetlands also exert significant influence on the hydrological cycle, altering
flood flows, maintaining low flows and groundwater recharge.

The Nile River basin is rich with variety of natural resources (lakes, wetlands, highlands, ecosystem, biodiversity, etc.).
In the basin a large population depends on the biodiversity and flood plains for their livelihoods.

Most of the individual wetlands link to other wetlands through a complex network of permanent and seasonal
streams, rivers. and lakes, making them an essential Part of the entire drainage system of the country

Wetlands that are registered by Ramsar as wetlands of international importance in the Nile Basin are shown in the map.

with in the Nile Basin region